Hong, Xiuping

April 16–30, 2018. Ghent University

Nanjing University, PRC


  • April 16–30, 2018. Ghent University

On April 27th Dr. Hong Xiuping delivered a lecture (in Mandarin) entitled, “從‘心’義種種看南宗禪的特色” [A variety of perspectives on the Southern Chan school’s specificity, departing from the meanings of the character “Mind”].

Abstract: 創立於古印度的佛教傳入中國以後,經過了一個不斷的中國化過程,從思想理論看,主要是與中國原有的儒家思想和道家思想融合發展,形成了具有中國特色的中國佛教。六祖惠能所創的禪宗南宗就是中國佛教的典型代表。

南宗禪形成於佛教中國化的過程之中和中國禪的演化之中。從達摩到弘忍的禪宗“東土五祖”的禪法,“心”義不斷變化,表現出兩種傾向。從惠能與神秀的偈頌可以看出南北禪宗的差別。

傳統佛教的“心”有多重涵義。惠能禪對傳統佛教有許多革新,其核心是對“心”做了新的理解和發揮。從現存《壇經》的有關記載來看,惠能所言之心的涵義也是十分複雜的。南宗禪把人心和佛性統一於人們的當下之心。從惠能禪由“心”而展開的“無相、無念、無住”,可以看到惠能禪的當下之心是般若實相論與涅槃佛性論相結合的產物。

惠能的全部禪學理論都是圍繞著人的解脫問題而展開的。從“心”的解脫到“人”的解脫,體現了南宗禪的發展。馬祖的“平常心”突出了當下人的解脫。南宗禪的解脫強調的是自然解脫,從中體現出道家精神和中國特色。表現在禪修實踐上,就是農禪並重,將禪修與運水搬柴、穿衣吃飯等日常生產和生活打成一片。

Translation of the first two paragraphs:

After Buddhism spread from ancient India to China, it underwent an unceasing process of change. From the perspective of ideas and discourse, it is essential to look at the development of how Buddhism mixed with native Confucianist and Daoist ideas to form a Chinese Buddhism with Chinese characteristics. The Southern school of Chan Buddhism, founded by the Sixth Patriarch Huineng, is a representative case of this Chinese Buddhism.

The Southern school of Chan took shape in the middle of the sinification of Buddhism and in the middle of the development of Chan. From the Chan doctrines of the “Five Chinese Patriarchs,” the Chan lineage of Bodhidharma to Hongren, the meaning of the character “mind” continuously changed, exhibiting two tendencies. From the poems of Huineng and Shenxiu, we can discover the differences between the Northern and Southern Schools of Chan.